Document Type : State-of-the-art paper


Brock University, Canada


For some time, schools have been consumers of others’ investigations and reflections rather than generators of their own research and reflections. However, if schools adapt a culture of collaboration this can result in a shared sense of values and beliefs about teaching and learning, where they are all there together working for their students’ collective success. Building such a collaborative school culture can be achieved through the adaption of reflective practice in the workplace through the development of reflection-generating activities as collaborative teacher evaluation and mentorship, critical friends, team-teaching, and peer coaching. Teachers themselves can also engage in their own bottom-up reflections through reflection-generating activities as writing, classroom observations, action research, narrative study, and lesson study. This paper first outlines and discusses how reflection can be promoted at the institutional level in schools and institutions (top-down), and then outlines and discusses how teachers themselves can engage in their own (bottom-up) reflection-generating activities