Little research has been conducted on self and peer assessment (hereafter, SA and PA) in Chinese language education in the United States, despite the fact that both forms of assessment have multiple benefits for language learning and it is argued they should be an integral component of language teachers’ repertoire of classroom assessment. Particularly, little is known about Chinese language teachers’ perceptions of SA and PA and their classroom SA and PA practices. To address this knowledge gap, this study aimed at exploring Chinese language teachers’ perceptions and implementation of SA and PA and establishing a ground for future research in this field. Using a qualitative methodology, we interviewed ten K–12 Chinese language teachers in US schools. By examining the interview responses of those teachers, this study revealed some important findings. Notably, all the teachers realized the benefits of SA and PA for student learning. Yet, there was rare use of them in most teachers’ classrooms. We discussed this gap by drawing upon the probed responses of the teachers as well as our inferences. The findings of this study inform SA and PA of Chinese language in K–12 classrooms and professional development for Chinese language teachers in US schools.